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South Sudan’s declaration of indipendence

By Paul T. Shipale
The Declaration of Independence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011, in Juba will see the birth of a new African 54th State, a Nation and of the people of South Sudan who resisted alien invasion, forced Islamization and Arabization with the aim to kill indigenous languages and cultures to accentuate Islamic and Arabic dominance and erase the historical link and indelible mark of Africa south of the Sahara’s contribution to the greatest civilization seen in Africa.

To corroborate this, Professor Prah said; “surely despite its shortcomings and fundamental laws, there can be little doubt that the OAU has made significant contributions to Africa’s political decolonization process but in instance like the Sudan and Mauritania, the OAU countenanced internal colonialism and slavery, by its so called principle of non-interference…In the Sudan, a war that started in August 1955, in the dying months of British rule, has relentlessly torn at the stability of the country. The Sudan has seen the longest war in Africa in the 20th century. As such the Sudan has in recent decades been possibly Africa’s supreme tragedy… Southern Sudanese have borne the brunt of Arab expansion southwards into east Africa and the Horn” concluded Professor Prah. Re-reading a paper by Bankie F. Bankie of December 7, 2009 titled “African unity on the basis of a unity of Africa south of the Sahara…”

I picked up some interesting facts about why the African presence in North Africa and the Borderlands was a blind area, especially in western scholarship. Bankie said “This void in information left the African people in general ignorant about a part of their patrimony, in terms of education and knowledge systems, to an extent as to seriously weaken their ability to make informed decisions as regards their destiny”.

The falsification of history Bankie explained that some 150.000 years ago beings morphologically identified as human, were living in the region of the Great Lakes at the source of the Nile and nowhere else (Diop 1990). The Nile Valley civilization was black African. Sudan originally extended from the Red Sea to the Atlantic.

It’s location on the Nile meant that it impacted the first advanced civilization with western outreach of Homo sapiens, which was Egypt, which drew its culture and ideas from the African hinterland (Chami 2006). Sudan had its black African advanced cultures, predating Egypt, such as Kush and Naphata, which bequeathed us their pyramids, which remain visible in the sands of Sudan today. Indeed, there is evidence to suggest a Sudanese (Nubia) origin of the Egyptian civilization.

Nubia is undoubtedly older than Egypt, and the migration was always South- North as boats go along the river flowing to the ocean or sea and never the other way round. This argument is supported by the fact that all the objects of worship in Egypt are Nubian, among others, the oldest pyramids are located in present Sudan, a fact that Western scholars are glossing over, since it will require their looking for a white origin. Nubia is the biblical child of Ham- Mesraim and kush- just like Egypt. In fact, the kings of Nubia (Sudan) were to bear the same titles as the Egyptian Pharaoh, that of the Hawk of Nubia.

Chancellor Williams (Williams 1976) identifies some nine periods in the history of northeast Africa, where the earliest civilizations centered around the capital cities of Naphata and Meroe in present day Sudan, their cultures spreading northwards to the Nile delta, when north-east Africa was peopled by black Africans, with people he refers to as white Asians entering later, occupying Lower Egypt and north eastern Ethiopia.

This, in his view, marks the date of the beginning of the falsification, by writers, of the contribution of black Africa to civilization.

One of the consequences of the arrival of the Asians in North Africa was to push, more and more, the black people away from the coast into the interior. The traffic of black women in slavery northwards, gave rise to a new type of Afro- Asian, who due to their estrangement with their African Mothers came to be called Egyptians, Arabs and Moors, depending on where they lived in North Africa. This lead to the enslavement of Africans deeper into black Africa, which falls into William’s third period of the black history of Egypt, beginning in the Seventh Dynasty 2181 (BC), which lead to the Arab invasion and the destruction of black civilization. Nyaba ( Nyaba 2002 ) dates the Arab conquest of Egypt at 640AD.

Williams says ( Williams 1976, 49 ) that whereas students have dwelt on the Egyptian penetration of Africa, they ignored:-‘… the most damaging developments from the Arab impact before the general European take over in the last quarter of the nineteenth century ’. He goes on to state: - ‘From the earliest times the elimination of these (black African) states as independent African sovereignties has been an Asian objective, stepped up by Muslim onslaughts after the seventh century AD’. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the Africans, according to Williams, at the point of contact between the two nations, were harassed, hunted as animals or enslaved, leading to permanent migration and wondering, descending into a state of semi-barbarism. When the Europeans arrived to impose their rule over both the Africans and the Asians, the re-established black states were still being conquered and Islamized.

Thereafter the history was deliberately falsified.

What transpired in Egypt was reproduced in Sudan to a greater extent. Egypt transformed from black, to brown and then white, whereas Sudan in the northern part, in general, transformed from black to brown, with some black pockets, such as the Nubians, who remain encircled by brown. The process in Darfur, which was preceded by South Sudan, where war broke out in 1955, bearded striking conformity to the ancient historical process of demographic engineering, using genocide and rape as a weapon, and in the modern circumstance, precision aerial bombing of civilian targets. Williams goes on to state that these events have been the subject of an international conspiracy of falsification and denial of history.

It was the long running war in the south of Sudan, which came to a negotiated cease-fire by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) of 2005, which created an awareness amongst the marginalized of the periphery in Sudan in particular, and the Afro-Arab Borderlands in general, of the possibility for change in Sudan. At the point of convergence of the two nations, Arab and African, there had long existed unequal relations based on a complex mix of ethnic, religious, linguistic and cultural historical factors.

Looked at from the Borderlands perspective it is Barnal ( Barnal 1987, 241 ) who sheds light on Arab attitudes to Africans.

According to him the Egyptian problem was:-‘First to deny that the Ancient Egyptians were black; the second was to deny that the Ancient Egyptians had created a ‘true’ civilization; the third was to make doubly sure by denying both…’ Barnal asserts that the Ancient Egyptian civilization was black African. He notes that Arabia in general has refused to accept this. According to Bernal it was in the period 1831 to 1860 that the Egyptian view of Ancient history was destroyed and replaced by the European view, as expounded in western scholarship today.

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE To understand the Declaration of Independence of South Sudan, it is essential, once again, to go over the colonial history of South Sudan that started with the Turko- Egyptian’s invasion and occupation of 1821 promoted by the expansionist ambitions of the Ottoman Empire and its craving for wealth and markets. Of course as usual, the main commodities of interest were slaves, gold, ivory and timber and South Sudan and her people became the main source of these commodities. In addition, the Turko-Egyptian collaborated in their raids against the South Sudan for slaves resulting in millions of South Sudanese people being taken into slavery in the Arab and new World. After the Turk’s rule that lasted for a period of sixty years, then came the Mahdist administration of 1883 – 1898, followed by the Belgians in 1892, who established the Lado Enclave as part of the Belgian Congo. During that time the French also occupied large parts of South Sudan of the Western Upper Nile up to Fashoda and by 1896 they had established a firm administration in these areas. In 1898 the Sudan was re-conquered by a joint British and Egyptian forces resulting in the signing of the Condominium Agreement between the British and the Egyptian to administer the Sudan.

Owing to the geographical, political, historical and cultural differences between North and South Sudan, the British devised a system of a separate administration for the two countries, with the Closed Districts Ordinances of 1920s, the Passports and Permits Ordinance was promulgated in 1922 and further strengthened by the permits and trade order enacted in 1925. Finally, a Language Policy that adopted English as the official language for South Sudan and approved the use of the local languages such as: Dinka, Bari i.e.-the Mondari, Fajelu, Kakwa, Nyangbara- Nuer, Latuko, Shilluk, the luo and Zande, was also developed and enforced in South Sudan in 1928. The cumulative effect of these laws coupled with the language policy was to maintain South Sudan as a separate country from North Sudan.

Instead of establishing an advisory council for South Sudan similar to that of North Sudan, the resolutions of the Administrative Conference held in Khartoum in 1946 surprisingly advocated the colonization of the South by North Sudan. Consequently, this unexpected outcome revealed the conspiracy between the British and the North Sudanese to hand over South Sudan to North Sudan as a colonial territory. The betrayal of South Sudan by the British was finally concluded in the infamous Juba conference of 1947, convened to inform the chiefs of South Sudan of the irreversible decision to hand over South Sudan to the new colonial masters from North Sudan.

This unpalatable decision was crowned by the promulgation and establishment of the Sudan Legislative Assembly in 1948.

As such Independence on the 1st of January 1956 for Sudan meant nothing for South Sudan but a change of masters. On the basis of the facts stated above, it is obvious that if the state of affairs was allowed to continue, it would have worked to the detriment of the people of the Sudan hence this Declaration of Independence. Congratulations my brothers and sisters! For centuries they tried to deny your existence yet you never changed your color just like a leopard never changes its spots. For this reason, I suggest you name your country after the Nile River or call it by its original name of Kush or Nubia. Indeed, the first will be the last and the last will be the first! Little wonders why Sudan has been the first country in Africa to gain Independence; yet the last people to accede their inalienable right to self-determination. Let all inhabitants of the world see when a banner shall be lifted on the mountains and hear when the trumpet is blown…!

Disclaimer: These views do not necessarily represent the views of my employer nor am I paid to write them.





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